in Cerebrospinal Fluid Hydrodynamics Research up to 1962

1700 B.C.
The oldest written record describing brain, meninges and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): the Egyptian “Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus”

1701
Antonio Pacchioni describes arachnoids granulations

1764
Domenico Cotugno describes the CSF system: the ventricles, the cranial and spinal subarachnoidal space

1783
Alexander Monro 2nd, states that the volume of the cranial vault and its blood volume is constant

1824
George Kellie adds the cerebral parenchyma as the second constituent to Monro’s statement of constant volume and inaugurates the Monro-Kellie doctrine

1825
Francois Magendie describes the circulation of CSF among the ventricles, the cranial and spinal subarachnoidal space

1846
George Burrows modifies the Monro-Kellie doctrine by adding the cranial and spinal CSF space as a third constituent

1869
Gustav Schwalbe describes a connection between the subarachnoidal space and the cervical lymphatic system

1911
Walter Dandy confirmes that the production of cerebrospinal fluid is a function of the choroid plexus

1923
Robert Elman describes CSF removal into spinal veins along nerve roots

1926
Harvey Cushing introduces the term »the third circulation« based on Magendie’s descriptions of CSF circulation

1934
Jules Masserman develops a technique for measuring CSF formation based on the time of restitution of CSF pressure after CSF volume change

1935
Lewis Weed develops a technique for measuring CSF removal based on the hydrostatic and oncotic pressure difference between CSF and venous blood

1957
James Millen and David Woollam describe the basic homeostatic regulation principles of CSF circulation

1960
Nils Lundberg describes intracranial pressure waves

1962
John Pappenheimer and associates develop the cerebral ventriculocisternal perfusion technique for measuring CSF production